Physical vapor deposition
PVD is the abbreviation of physical vapor deposition. PVD is the technology of material evaporation deposition in a vacuum state. The vacuum chamber is the necessary condition to avoid the reaction of evaporated material and air. PVD coating is used to prepare new products with added value and characteristics, such as brilliant color, wear resistance, and friction reduction. The PVD process is used to form the coating by condensing most of the metal materials and combining them with gases, such as nitrogen. The matrix material is transformed from solid-state to gas state and is ionized by heat energy as received in the arc process, or by kinetic energy as in the sputtering process. PVD technology is environmentally friendly and pollution-free. In general, Huicheng vacuum focuses on PVD coating.
The term “physical vapor deposition” (PVD) covers specific processes used in thin-film technology. In all cases, it refers to vacuum-based coating processes that use physical methods to deposit thin films on a substrate.
Of the various types, sputtering is one of the most economic deposition methods which is used as a standard coating technique in many industries. One of the main reasons for popularity of sputtering is the fact that this method allows for a multitude of different materials to be deposited on a wide variety of substrates.
Sputtering processes are used in different applications such as finishing surfaces in the semiconductor industry, producing polarization filters in the optical industry or coating large area surfaces in architectural glass industry.
Not only do we supply our customers with coating systems, but we also develop and produce sputtering targets and we have a great deal of expertise from our more than quarter a century of experience in this area.
In all PVD processes, the material from which the thin film will be produced is initially in solid form and normally located somewhere in the process chamber, e.g. at the target in sputtering. Various methods are used to vaporize the material (for example, using a short, powerful laser pulse, with an arc, or by ion or electron bombardment) which then condenses in the form of a thin film on the substrate.
Sputtering is another way of physical vapor deposition technology. The sputtering process is the technology that the target material is bombarded out by ion bombardment. An inert gas, such as argon, is charged into the vacuum cavity. By using high voltage, a glow discharge is generated to accelerate the ion to the target surface. Argon ion bombards (sputters) the target material from the surface and deposits it on the workpiece in front of the target. Other gas bodies, such as nitrogen and acetylene, are usually used to react with the target material sputtered out to form a thin compound Membrane. Sputtering technology can prepare many kinds of coatings, and has many advantages in decorative coatings (such as Ti, Cr, Zr and carbonitride). Because of its very smooth coating, sputtering technology is also widely used in the field of Tribology in the automobile market (for example, CrN, Cr2N, and many kinds of diamond (DLC) coatings). High energy ions bombard the target, extract atoms, and transform them into a gas state. A large number of materials can be sputtered by magnetron sputtering technology.
Arc evaporation is a way of physical vapor deposition. The application of PVD in hard coating starts from the arc technology. The arc technology originated from electric welding. The evaporated solid metal (target) is placed in the vacuum chamber to generate glow discharge, and then it runs on the target surface. The target evaporates in a very small range, about several microns in size. The arc motion is controlled by the magnetic field. The plasma formed by the evaporated metal ions will be deposited on the surface of the workpiece. These workpieces rotate in the vacuum cavity. The coating prepared by the arc is usually used for the surface coating of tools and parts, such as tin, AlTiN, AlCrN, TiSiN, TiCN, crcn, and CrN. The evaporated metal is ionized and accelerated into the electric field at the same time. In the arc process, the evaporated material is highly ionized, and the deposited coating has excellent adhesion.
Electron beam evaporation
Body with longitudinal beam scanning
A system with a spray gun and a fully digital beam sweeper for thick layers of single, multi-pocket and large capacity crucibles.
The customized electron gun source with crucible turret system is used for special applications and extends the product time between source maintenance.
Ion assisted evaporation（IAD）
Ion source technology can provide lower process temperature, shorter process time, and enhanced film performance for applications in Photonics and optoelectronics.
HCMS series E-beam evaporation optical coater adopts advanced electron gun evaporation and ion-assisted deposition (IAD) technology to deliver thin film deposition and etch capabilities for precision optics, optoelectronics, and semiconductor applications to customers around the globe.
From the deposition of multilayer dielectrics and metals to TCOs or a whole range of compounds, it can be configured just the way you need for directional coating, enhanced thickness uniformities, and the tightest optical, mechanical and environmental specifications.
HVAC brings you the complete solution including processes and substrate handling knowhow on a platform with proven production reliability for the best ever cost of ownership.
Electromagnetic Filtering Cathode Technology (EFC)
The combination of the pulsed electromagnetic field and fixed magnetic field scans the entire target surface so that the target surface is evenly etched. The unique electromagnetic power supply can output in both positive and negative directions, control the uniform scaling of arc spot on the target surface, reduce the generation of large particles. And the coating is dense and smooth.
Coatings of new metal compounds or nitride films (nitrogen atmosphere).
Coatings of amorphous carbon, nanodiamond, and carbon nanotubes nanoparticles.
Coatings of a thermoelectric thin film with the thermoelectric material target.
High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technology
Under the condition of low frequency and low duty cycle, the target was sputtered by hippies technology with very short pulse voltage. During the time of applying voltage, the magnetron target generates MW level pulse energy, while maintaining low average power. High-density ions are produced in the plasma.
For most medium carbon alloy structural steel parts, its hardness is much lower than that of hard film. Only a few microns thick PVD film is deposited, which is difficult to effectively improve its wear resistance, fatigue strength and plastic deformation resistance. After nitriding, nitrogen compound and diffusion layer are formed on the surface of steel, which improves the surface hardness of parts. Nitriding parts are more suitable for PVD coating than nonnitriding parts.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is often used in automobile engines to reduce the friction of the engine. The black color makes DLC coating popular as decoration coating (such as a watch). Because of its low friction and nonadhesion coefficient, DLC coating is well used in tool coating. DLC coating technology is very suitable for machining and casting/forging, as well as coating of aluminum and plastic injection mold.
DLC coating technology:
Different types of diamond-like carbon coatings have different production technologies. DLC coating is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed, even in the condition of no lubrication operation. It has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation, and adhesion (anti-wear). It can withstand the surface pressure that will immediately lead to wear and cold welding under normal conditions, reduce the friction loss to the minimum, and good corrosion resistance can prevent the matrix from damaging attack.
PECVD is the abbreviation of plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Sometimes PECVD is also written. E stands for enhancement. In the PVD process, the coating material is obtained by evaporation in the solid form; in the PACVD process, the coating material is obtained by evaporation in the gas form, and the gas, such as hands (hexamethyldimethylsilyl ether), is about 200 under the action of plasma When cracking occurs at º C, nonreactive gases, such as argon, can make ions deposit on the workpiece surface and form a very thin coating. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is a good example of PACVD technology, which is usually used in tribology and the automobile industry.
Plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) is used to deposit DLC coating. Through plasma excitation and ionization, chemical reactions in the process can be activated. With this process, we can use pulse glow or high-frequency discharge to deposit at a low temperature of about 200 ° C. the DLC coating produced by PACVD has the characteristics of low friction coefficient and expandable surface hardness.
Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD)
CVD is a well-established technique for the deposition of a wide variety of films with different compositions and thicknesses down to a single layer of atoms.
Substrate sits directly on electrode which can be heated up to 1200˚C
Gas injected into process chamber via “showerhead” gas inlet in the top electrode
Solid/liquid precursor delivery system for novel processes such as 2D materials MOCVD, ZnO nanowire CVD etc.
Automatic load lock to transfer sample directly on to a hot table and save time on heating and cooling.
Plasma enhancement options for lower temperature deposition or plasma assisted conversion or functionalization as well as chamber cleaning.
Wide range of processes possible in the same chamber